Any activity requires competent management. When it comes to an enterprise or a company, managers take on management responsibilities: managers, department heads, leading employees who are entrusted with a large project. It is necessary to manage not only at the production level, but also at the household level: the better the activity is organized, the more pleased the result.
Strategy and plan are elements of planning – one of the functions of management. This is, in essence, the results of planning as a process: a well-written plan is half the work. Despite the importance of developing and predicting the course of events, as long as matters remain on paper in the form of paragraphs, subparagraphs, and theses, one cannot speak of full-fledged production and any other activity. Management activities are not conceived without making plans:
1- Strategic – long-term, or promising;
2- Tactical – supporting (for the implementation of the strategy);
3- Operational – short-term, focused on solving specific tasks in a short time.
The strategy acquires real outlines and practical value only in the case of its implementation. Plans allow you to organize a chaotic set of tasks in a coherent scheme of action. They should be compiled for each area of management and executive efforts, be it production or finance, work with staff, or marketing research.
Thoughts on activities may be interesting and promising, but as long as they are in a state of certain ideas, it is difficult to squeeze the benefits out of them. Forecasts about the future functioning of the organization take the form of plans. To illustrate the function of planning and the relationship between the concepts of strategy, tactics, goals, objectives, plans, a travel metaphor is appropriate:
- The goal is to make a vacation unforgettable or to go on a business trip for the benefit of a career.
- Tasks – step-by-step explanation of how to get to your destination and do everything you need (plan a trip, choose a country / city, choose the best mode of service and speed of transport, buy a ticket, book a hotel room)
- Strategy is an understanding of what such events will bring to a person in the future with their systematic repetition. For example, rest is necessary to recuperate and be ready to meet professional challenges with renewed energy. Speaking about business trips, one cannot ignore the role of trips (participation in seminars, advanced training, exchange of experience) in professional advancement. Their frequency and high performance will positively affect career growth.
- The plan and the list are, respectively, the program of the conference (events are arranged in the order of their conduct) and the list of purchases (not the sequence of purchases is important here, but the exact number and name of the necessary goods).
In the process of achieving the goal, it is possible to adjust a previously prepared action plan, therefore a set of alternatives should be thought out. They will help fill in the gaps in the schedule if the changed conditions impede the activity. So, at the resort sunny days can be replaced by rainy, so walking to the beach will have to be replaced by visiting exhibitions and other events “under the roof.”
The strategy determines the long-term prospects: within its framework, the solution of problems is stretched over several years. Tactics is a decomposition of the strategy, and its main function is to distribute the main tasks in time, which is given to achieve the goal. The concept of “plan” in this chain of comparisons corresponds to the weather forecast: this is a detailed description of the activity point by point. The more detailed and more specific the plan, the faster the movement “from point A to point B”.
Plan and strategy are matched, but not contrasted. The content of the company’s activities (aspects of production, financing, investment, profit distribution, marketing, personnel management, optimization) are described in detail in a strategy that corresponds to the company’s goals and philosophy. Different types of planning give this content form, with the result that actions to achieve the goal appear in the form of a roadmap. The goal is divided into tasks, which accelerates progress: thanks to this, the path to success of the organization ceases to seem insurmountable.